Madrigal Pharmaceuticals (MDGL) which develops small-molecule drugs addressing major unmet needs in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, has one leading candidate that you need to be aware of. That trial drug is “MGL-3196.” Madrigal Pharmaceuticals is essentially all in on MGL-3196. It is a liver-directed thyroid hormone receptor (THR) β-selective agonist to treat swollen livers and associated. cholesterol issues
Recently, Madrigal Pharmaceuticals achieved the completion of patient enrollment in two Phase 2 clinical studies of MGL-3196 in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), respectively. They also got a second recommendation from the Drug Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) that included a review of the data from both the NASH and HeFH Phase 2 clinical studies.
Below we discuss what you need to know:
Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease in the United States and worldwide, unrelated to alcohol use, that is characterized by a build-up of fat in the liver, inflammation, damage (ballooning) of hepatocytes and increasing fibrosis. Although people with NASH may feel well and often do not know they have the disease, NASH can lead to permanent damage, including cirrhosis and impaired liver function in a high percentage of NASH patients.
In October 2016, the first patient was treated in Madrigal’s Phase 2 trial of MGL-3196 for the treatment of NASH. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center study enrolled 125 patients 18 years of age and older with biopsy-confirmed NASH and more than 10% liver fat as confirmed by a magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF).
In this trial, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either MGL-3196 or placebo. The primary endpoint of the trial is the reduction of liver fat, assessed by MRI-PDFF at 12 weeks. Recent published data show a high correlation of reduction of liver fat measured by MRI-PDFF to NASH scoring on liver biopsy.
Efficacy will be confirmed at the end of the trial (36 weeks) by repeat MRI-PDFF and conventional liver biopsy to examine histological evidence for the resolution of NASH. Additional secondary endpoints include changes in clinically relevant biomarkers at 12 and 36 weeks, improvement in fibrosis by at least one stage, improvement of NASH, and safety and tolerability.
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), and a much rarer form called homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), are severe genetic dyslipidemias typically caused by inactivating mutations in the LDL receptor. Both forms of FH lead to early onset cardiovascular disease. HeFH, the most common dominantly inherited disease, is present in up to 1 in 200 people; the disease is found in higher frequencies in certain more genetically homogenous populations. Treatments exist for both HeFH and HoFH but many patients (as many as 40 percent of HeFH patients) are not able to reach their cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction goals on these therapies, reflecting the lifetime burden of cholesterol buildup in their bodies. Based on evidence of impressive LDL cholesterol lowering in Phase 1, and data suggesting that MGL-3196 has a mechanism of action that is different from and complementary to statins, Madrigal initiated a Phase 2 proof-of-concept trial in HeFH in February 2017. Patient recruitment for the study was completed in September 2017 and included 116 patients.
The 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center study was expected to enroll up to 105 patients with HeFH randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either MGL-3196 or placebo, in addition to their current drug regimen (including high dose statins and ezetimibe). The primary endpoint of the study is reduction of LDL cholesterol, with secondary endpoints including reductions in triglycerides, Lp(a), and ApoB, as well as safety. Lp(a) is a severely atherogenic lipid particle, commonly elevated in familial hypercholesterolemia patients and poorly controlled by existing lipid lowering therapies. THR-β agonism is one of the few therapeutic approaches that can substantially lower Lp(a).
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